Psyc 368_Ch 14_Personality Testing_Mmpi-2_Part 2


  • 09-May-2022

This is Dr. Charissa Flanagan today, I'll be talking about personality testing and continuing part one. This is part two of personality testing in this segment I will be talking primarily about the MMP to okay. So let's talk about the MMP that was the Neo and the MMP - is the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory. It was developed by Hathaway McKinley back in 1939. So when I say it's, the granddaddy of all personality tests, it has been around for a long time. 567 items. It takes a long.

Time to complete this one to two hours for most people it's in a true or false format, also called dichotomous yes/no. So it'll, ask you think, do you smell things that other people don't smell, yes, or no? Do you have stomachaches?

Yes, or no, you have to decide because that might be kind of hard like everybody has a stomachache occasionally. This is sort of a general approach, a forced choice, and it's been through some revisions and additions. But largely it has stayed the same and lots of the. Language is the same - you'll see in a minute. It had a massive restated station in 1989, where we looked at more current norms. And then there was another revision in I forget. What year the was that was where there were in the 90s, the late 90s, I believe, we're, the restructured scales came into play.

And there is an adolescent version called the MMP a and it. This comes in lots and lots of different languages. You can get this on audio for people who can't read and so forth. So it's its. Quite extensive one of the really cool things about the MPI to you is the sophisticated validity scales. The biggest problem with self-report or subjective, I'm. Sorry.

Objective personality tests is that people can lie right? I mean, I mentioned a minute ago you don't have to tell me the truth on a test. But the MMP really picks up on a lot of these things it's used it's widely used in forensic. So one of the things that does in the Elle scale and I do I.

Do want you to pay attention to these. Five there's more than these validity skills, but I want you to look at these five. The lie scale is elevated when people are trying to present themselves in the most positive light. Sometimes this is kind of appropriate if you're looking for a job, or you're you're wanting to be a police officer. For example, you want to present yourself in a positive light. But if you're so defensive that you will not admit to any negative symptoms.

Then the profile isn't valid. We know that you've faked good. Basically.

The F scale is the opposite of that it's its called the infrequency scale. But a lot of people refer to this is the fake bad scale because people who have elevations on this seem to endorse all kinds of psychopathology, and sometimes it's its. So high that you can't really trust, it perhaps they're motivated to have a very clinical profile. Imagine someone who's on trial, and they're trying to they're they're trying to establish themselves as I'm criminally insane or something like that. So you've.

Got some people that might fake bad for that reason, but you might also have some elevations here, just a tendency to focus on a lot of these angsty things because someone has a lot of problems. So you get elevations there, too. It could just be a lot of psychopathology. Okay, you see these things together and in graduate school, you'll learn to interpret them. You know, and is it an inverted V? Is it a V?

Is it a checkmark? So there are some patterns here that you learn to interpret, but at a basic level, k, Is a correction scale, it generally supports the LMF scale, it's its, telling you a little about how defensive someone was when they approached it. The trend stands for true response inconsistency. Basically, this is looking for the person who just went through and wrote all true or all false and not just true/false as in they bubbled because some of these reverse coded. But, but just, yeah, some random some randomness there and then Men, the variable response and consistency is also looking its. Really looking for that random profile where people might have just sat and bubbled in things, just to pass the time just to get through it. They didn't read every question carefully.

So all of these scales and some others are used to determine whether the profile. The test is even valid. There are times when though there will be indications from these skills, such that it's, someone faked bad, their f scale was so high that you can't interpret the profile. So sometimes you'll have an entire you. Look at these scales and go up I cannot even use this. So I want to show you the clinical skills there are many many others.

But these are the ten main clinical skills that most psychologists rely on these the most. And we start with. And we call these by the number I want you to know that in the psychologist it's like a code that we use, you know, we'll say, oh, well, they were a to seven, or you know, there's a neurotic triad or yeah, they're they're, elevated on six, seven eight. So we. Have groupings, and we've talked about them, not by their names.

But by their numbers, just kind of have Y I so skill. One is hypochondriasis you'll. Notice, this is kind of an old-fashioned word you don't hear that other places, but it still reflects that hypochondriac kind of personality.

These people are very concerned with physical symptoms with, you know, they have lots of headaches and tummy aches and gastrointestinal problems. They may have back tension, all kinds of different physical responses. So.

You can have someone who just focuses a lot on their physical symptoms. So they made in the maybe sick. Okay. They could have. They could have elevations here if they're actually sick, but they also could have this if they just interpret psychological pain as physical pain.

And so that's, a certain kind of person that you might see in therapy that they have this general, vague complaints about lack of energy or sleep issues, those kinds of things, but they're, they don't tend to be terribly psychopathic. If you scale to is depression, so that's, basically what it looks like depressive symptoms' hopelessness, kind of pessimistic outlook if you will, it also picks up on I'm suicidal there are questions about whether someone's suicidal or not. And it may also reflect some low self. Esteem scale, three is hysteria. And this is a very old word, and we do not call people hysterical. Now they would be offended it's, not widely used it's, not a clinical term that we use.

So this is reflecting some old-. Fashioned kind of terminology. So scale, three is people. This is similar in some way. So sometimes you'll see a one three with a dip on two so high one three with a dip. This is this inverted V or people really don't understand their own psychopathology. But they've got this awareness of general, emotional turmoil, but they're, not terribly insightful.

They may be kind of egocentric, but generally kind of talkative and likable. They use indirect measures to get attention and affection from. People, but they don't often really know they don't really understand their psychological problems. Let's go for psychopathic deviate. These people have no respect for society's rules and authority they're high in conflict, and they may be impatient or impulsive show anger, and they may be pretty insensitive to others. So if you have a high for like that may be seen as pretty self-centered skill 5 is a masculinity femininity scale. So this has been on here for many years.

It was originally meant to. Identify homosexuality, it does not work. It does not build like that. Of course. Now you would just ask someone these questions, but it's really now we would say it just measures those stereotypical kind of interests of men and women skill 6 is paranoia. And this could be people who are, frankly, psychotic, but they have low trust they're suspicious.

They are guarded. They may think they're getting a raw deal out of life. People high on 7. This is really kind of what we consider.

The sickest India is the new. Term for that is anxiety, really we consider this to be our anxiety scale. People high on the scale or anxious tense, they're agitated. They may be irritable. They could be obsessive compulsive ritualistic kind of. But you see those elevations with most people with anxiety disorders. Scale 8 is the schizophrenic scale schizophrenia and people with high elevations here.

You may have a psychotic disorder, and they may show really odd eccentric behavior. But not everybody with elevations on this is. Schizophrenic that could be so socially alienated, and that can be because they have such high social anxiety that they have isolated themselves, or it could be something more clinical, but there's, a lot of sensory items on this scale that ask, you know, if you see your smell, or you know, do you see visions that other people don't see? Or you being followed, those kinds of things scale. 9 is the mania scale.

And this picks up on a level of excitability people with this may have accelerated speech. They. Could have delusions of grandeur flight of ideas.

They may start tons of different projects. They may have a grandiosity. So you could imagine a to 9 profile depression and mania may be showing, you know, semantic depressive kinds of or some bipolar tendencies and then there's scale 0, which interestingly scale 0 seems like it should be a 10 right? Well, it's because back in the day, the computers didn't like those multiple digits. And so they named it zero. This is just a social introversion high scores. Are socially introverted, low scores are more extroverted, so there's, a little more that that goes into that really high scores.

Here may show some lack of self-confidence. People may experience people with a really high others. Others may experience height:0 people with high zeroes to be maybe cold or distant. So, alright. So those are the basic clinical scales I want to quickly just show you I'm going to I'm going to flip over to another set of slides and I just wanted to walk through or just show you. A little how something like this might be interpreted.

So this is a completely random response period. This is the scale is invalid. If you see these two lines down here that go from 50 to 65, these are normal. Alright. Most of us, hopefully most of our responses would be within a t-score of 50 and 65 this one has, and you can't see these really, really well.

But this has an F score that's a up way over 100 and 100 is invalid. The FP FB all of these are fake bad kinds of profiles. So, but also the fact that. The K is near 50. This is just indicating that. This was a completely respond. Random response.

Here's. An all true response. You see a similar block up there at the top where those were this person just responded everything in a true pattern, here's, an all false profile. So it looks different, but it's its. A also invalid profile.

You've got these things up over 100 that's when we start looking at things and saying, there's something wrong with this. And so when these validity skills, so watch. My cursor here over here are all the validity skills when these are in show us that are invalid. We don't even look at this. We can't, we can't do much with it here's, a negative self presentation, and I've got okay. So the white dots this blank dot up here.

This inverted V is another fake bad. This is showing us elevations. The one with the black dots a psychiatric profile. And so you have an inverted V, but your F is still just did an 80. And so in this case, we're saying, this person just has a lot. Going on they're experiencing a lot of a lot of pain, psychological pain, but it's, not invalid, but it does give us that indication that they are crying out for help and telling us what's wrong. And then this last one is just a standard.

And this is more normative. You see these are right here in the normal range. All right, if you look over at the clinical scales of this, this is where it gets kind of fun and interesting. And so here you've got this top one is showing us the fake bad again. We can't.

Really interpret this because so is it's invalid, but you see these elevations over here on seven eight, nine or six, seven eight are very high. The black one is going to be the most fascinating. So let's, look at this here, you have a six and an eight.

Alright. And this is the paranoia and schizophrenic kinds of scales. So you're, seeing some of this psychopathology here with them, some concerns about a lot of interpersonal problems. It may not be in the psychiatric clinical range. So I'm. Not thinking that this person would be schizophrenic I would expect those to be higher. If is that were the case, but I would say that this person is probably very socially isolated, they're experiencing a lot of anger and authority issues.

And so I would probably be looking at this at these profiles over here. This is just a positive and profile. You've got the backwards check over here with your validity scales and just flat over here. We don't have a lot of information there.

So that concludes an. Introduction to personality testing for tests and measurements, the two main tests that we were talking about here were the MMP and the Neo, the two types of testing we were talking about were subjective and objective or subjective, I'm, sorry, I'm getting them straighter that brings us to the end of the introduction to personality testing. We talked mainly just to summarize the points here we talked about objective versus projective testing, looked at the most common, commonly used objective test.

Versus projective tests, and then we looked closely at two objective personality tests, the MMP and the Neo.

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